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Types Of Washers & Their Application

Washer is a disk shaped thin plate with a centre hole used to distribute the load of a threaded fastener. Washers are also used as spacer, spring, for distributing load, pre-loading screws, to reduce vibration (rubber washer). Washers are made of metal, plastic, rubber or fiber.

Washers can be categorised in three types : Plain Washer, Spring Washer, Lock Washer



Plain Washer

Plain Washer are used to distribute load to prevent damage to the surface being assembled. Plain (Millar) washers are also used to provide electrical insulation.


Flat washer / Type A plain washer 

Flat Washer / Plain Washer are thin, flat, and circular washers used with screw, nut or a bolt to distribute load to relatively larger area.

Flat washers sometimes also used to secure a relatively larger hole with smaller screw 

 


Fender washer 

Fender Washers are washers with larger outside diameter as compared to the inside diameter. These washers can distribute the load to relatively larger area as compared to flat washers.

Fender Washers has application in Automobile, plumbing, sheet metal and electrical applications, attaching signs, panelling and drywall.


Shoulder Washer

Shoulder washers are used for insulating screw, wire or any other part from an assembly. Flange on the shoulder washer is used to locate the bushing when it is installed or to provide a thrust bearing surface.

Shoulder washers are available in materials like Fiber-glass, fibre, phenolic, nylon, PCTFE, PTFE & Metals


C-Washer 

C- Washer are designed to be slide in and out of position on a bolt or shaft in a partially completed assembly or can be used as a retention device on a grooved shaft to keep components in place.

 


Countersunk Washer 

Countersunk washer is used as a flat washer for flat head / countersunk screws. When secured countersunk washer provide a flush surface and are available in several shapes including: 90 degree countersunk, angle countersunk, flanged, un-flanged, and rolled flange among others. 



Spring washer

Spring washers are used to provide axial load to fasteners in case of vibration, shock.


Belleville / Conical Spring Washer

Bellwville / Conical spring washer is used to maintain the tension in assemblies when there are conditions of thermal expansion and contraction. Belleville spring washers are designed to support relatively high loads with relatively small deflection. Their variable load-deflection characteristics depend on the ratio of height to thickness.The load and deflection capability is dependent on height/thickness ratio. 


Crescent / Curved Spring Washer

Curved spring washer is used for applications that require a spring washer that supports relatively light loads with a relatively wide deflection range. They provide a uniform spring rate over the deflection range and have linear load-deflection characteristics.This is used in flexible, load-cycling applications.


Dome Spring Washer

Dome Spring Washers are designed to have a very high load capacity with a very small deflection range.While similar in appearance to a crescent washer, a dome washer has ground curves to create a flatter load-bearing surface.

 


Finger  Spring Washer

Finger Spring Washer used to counteract noise, excess wear, and vibrations or reducing skidding wear on rotating elements. These washers are generally manufactured from carbon steel. They combine the flexibility of a crescent washer with the distributed load points of a wave washer. 

 


Wave Spring Washer 

Wave Spring Washer have good load capacity and deflection, and are typically used as cushion springs or spacers on a shaft in many applications. They are designed with a moderate load capacity with a moderate deflection range. Wave spring washers have linear load-deflection characteristics to approximately 80% of maximum deflection.



Locking washers

Locking Washers are used to prevent fasteners loosening by preventing unscrewing rotation. Locking washers are a type of spring washers. Lock washers are used to secure fasteners that have a tendency to rotate or lose friction. The washer is designed to exert a load, partially deform, and lock a fastener in place.


External tooth Lock Washer 

External tooth lock washer is used to prevent a nut or bolt head from loosening with the strut action of the teeth. They work best with larger screw or bolt heads. External tooth lock washers provide maximum torsional resistance. When secured, the teeth bite into a mating surface while they resist the compressional force.

 


Internal Tooth Lock Washer

Internal teeth lock washer is used to prevent a nut or bolt head from loosening with the strut action set up by the teeth. Teeth also absorb shock and vibration.

 


Helical / Split Lock Washer 

Helical spring lock washers are used to prevent assembly components from loosening. They increase preload on screw or bolt while tighting which provide protection against loosening resulting from vibration and corrosion.

 


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